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讲座名称满文档案应用举隅:后金及清初满语言文学理论分析

讲座名称 满文档案应用举隅:后金及清初满语言文学理论分析
举办单位 文学与新闻传播学院 联系人 魏凤
联系电话
举办时间 2018 年 10 月 16 日  14 时 00 分 地点 航空港校区H-221
主要受众 本科生
报告人基本情况 姓名 梁永 职称职务 讲师
工作单位 图宾根大学汉学院 所在单位联系电话
社会兼职
讲座主要内容 A Theoretical Analysis of the Manchu Language & Literature of the Jin-Qing State Before 1644 with special reference to the application of Manchu archives 滿文檔案應用舉隅: 後金及清初满语言文学理論分析Yong LIANG 梁永 Institute of Asian and Oriental Studies University of Tübingen 圖賓根大學亞洲與遠東學院 Part One: What did scholars do? 一、文学回顧 In this research, literature review only consists of work for theoretical frame, as we devote to interdisciplinary studies that entail linguistics, literature, history and anthropology. 本研究課題的文學回顧以理論指導性的著述爲主,旨在倡導語言學、文學、歷史、人類學等學科交叉的研究。 1. Most Chinese scholars believe that one cannot distinguish literature from history, which well corresponds with some western scholars, such as Hayden White (1928-2018), who believed that history is nothing but literature in another form.  Essentially, only historians would consider their work as true stories.  多數中國學者認爲文史不分家,這跟某些西方學者的觀點不謀而合。美國史學家海登•懷特就認爲不管如何書寫,歷史作品就是文學的一種形式,其本質就是學者個人的作品,乃一家之言,只有歷史學家纔會信以爲真。 2. However, German historian Jörn Rüsen claims that though historians tell stories, and story-telling follows the rules of narration, but these rules essentially differ from all modes of scientific argumentation which are based upon and aiming at general laws, if possible in a mathematical form.  德國史學家約恩•呂森則持不同的觀點。他認為歷史學家是在講故事,所講的故事遵循著敘事的規則,而這些規則在本質上不同於各種科學論證模式,因爲後者建基於普遍法則,並追求普遍法則,如果可能的話則採用數學的形式。這個觀點一方面將歷史與文學區分開,即故事與敘事是不同的概念,但同時認爲歷史依然是不同形式的故事,本質上可以歸入文學的範疇。 3. As an academic discipline, history was founded by a German philosopher and historian Leopold von Ranke (1795-1886), who successfully differentiated history from philosophy. He defined history as a science that pursues objectivity by his famous thesis, “wie es eigentlich gewesen”, as it actually existed.  Nonetheless, both philosophy and history can be included as objects for literature studies. 德國歷史學家利奧波德•馮•蘭克則認爲追求歷史書寫的目標是“如同當時發生的那樣”,其目標是將歷史引入科學的範疇。但從廣義上講,不管是哲學還是歷史,皆是文學考察的對象。 4. Regarding the definition of literature, a French philosopher Jacque Derrida (1930-2004) argues that it is difficult to draw a line between literature and philosophy. His effort is to analyze and deconstruct literature, which leads literature into metaphysical and philosophical arguments.  法國哲學家德里達則認爲文學與哲學的邊界並不清晰。他的著述多在分析與解構文學,將其引入抽象的哲學論辯。 5. The current writings related to Manchu literature mainly exist in historical studies. A popular trend, named as The New Qing History Movement, advocates scholars to use Manchu archives for historical narrative, which also adopted amounts of Manchu literature to support their studies. One example is Pamela Kyle Crossley’s Orphan Warriors: Three Manchu Generations and the End of the Qing World, which is historical work but highly involving literature and anthropological studies. 當下西方滿語言文學的倡導者是新清史運動的學者,主張學習滿語並使用滿語資源來支持歷史研究。典型的例子即柯嬌燕的《孤軍:滿洲三代家族與清世界的滅亡》,文學故事性很強,又結合了人類學的個案研究手法,十分新穎。 6. In a linguistic view, language essentially is the activity of human thoughts, expressed in forms of voice, pictures and words for the purpose of spreading messages. The Linguistic Turn assumes that meaning does not exist outside of the language, which implies that reality can only be recognized by the symbolic system of language itself. Ferdinand de Saussure claims that scripts overrides spoken language for all sorts of reasons, such as stability.  In terms of Manchu language and literature, Manchu archives are a rich source for scholars in search of evidence to underpin academic activities. 語言的本質是人類的思維活動,表現於聲音、圖畫和文字,以便於信息的傳遞。“語言學的轉向”認爲語言之外並無意義,而且實體只能被語言的象徵系統所確認。索緒爾認爲,出於諸多因素,例如穩固性,文字得以凌駕於口語之上。在滿語言文學的研究中,滿文檔案是一個極爲豐富的寶庫,提供了大量的實證資料可資學術研究。 Part Two: Why do we do it? 爲何選題 The academic activities propose hypotheses in order to pursue truth, which is concluded as objective axioms. This research inevitably entails theories of linguistics and literature, with history included since most of the evidence comes from Manchu archives and documents. 學術活動提出假說以求得真理,並總結爲客觀的公理。本研究必然地承襲了語言學、文學及歷史學的理論,因爲多數證據來自於滿文檔案。 1. What is Manchu language in historical course? 在歷史縱向的視野裏,滿語言是什麼?(Jurchen language and Manchu script) 2. What is literature in a Manchu perspective? 如何定義滿語文學?(translated work, stories, poems, songs, proverbs, and other forms of oral traditions) 3. How is Manchu literature related to linguistic studies? 滿語言文學與語言學的關係如何? (the spread of message and message itself) 4. How is Manchu literature related to historical studies? 文學與歷史的關係 (Narrative and Reconstruction; Story and Imagination) 5. How do we re-envision humanistic studies in light of the Linguistic Turn? 再觀語言轉向下的人文學科 (message acquisition and knowledge production) Part Three: What do we have? 資源分析 Classification of sources 资料的分类 1. Western literature: This source mainly provides theoretical frames, distinguishing history works from literature works, historical studies from literature studies. 西方學術作品主要提供理論框架,如何界定歷史作品與文學作品,歷史研究與文學研究。 2. The major source is the Manchu archives: 舊滿洲檔、內閣藏本滿文老檔、滿洲實錄、清初內國史院滿文檔案 3. The Han Chinese source includes some chronicles and chorography (志), such as 遼東志、全遼志、大明一統志、盛京通志;Veritable records, such as明實錄、東華錄、清太祖高皇帝實錄、大清太宗文皇帝實錄、太宗實錄稿本; 4. Korean source which was composed in Chinese language, such as 李朝實錄、建州紀程圖記校注、建州聞見錄、栅中日錄校釋、燃藜室記述、沈館錄. 5. Mongol source which was mainly written in Chinese, such as 清代蒙古史札記、欽定蒙古源流、明代蒙古史、明代蒙古史論集、清代蒙古史、清代蒙古史札記.  Application of sources 资料的使用 1. Official and unofficial documents 官方与民间 2. Narratives and stories 叙事与故事 3. Are they trustworthy? 資源可靠性之辨析 Part Four: How do we do it? 切題方法 Linguistic and Literature 语言文学法 1. The first method is Word Study, which falls into the category of linguistics. For example, some Chinese documents mention Nurgaqi’s 部下、屬下或家人, which might be interpreted as people who worked together with Nurgaqi, or for him. However, in the Manchu archives, this corresponding word is “aha”, which is a bond-servant in the context. Researchers might have gone astray without looking into the Manchu context. 語言學:滿、漢、英史料語境分析,例如“奴才”之稱謂。 2. The second is grammatical analysis, which is to find the structures of each sentence. Structures will appear to help researchers locate main messages. 其次是語法分析,找出句子中的結構,以便發現主題信息。 3. The third is textual analysis, which is to identify the key message of each text. It also involves in large amounts of translation from the Manchu language into English or Chinese languages. 其次是文本分析法,即找出個體文本的主題信息。此法還包括將大量的滿文文本翻譯爲英語或漢語。 4. The fourth is content analysis, which is to identify patterns that repeat in the documents, such as population, lands, wars and silver. Themes will emerge gradually in the process. This method is identical with the observation approach in natural science. 內容分析法,經過大量的閱讀,發現文獻中重複出現的模式,這些模式即是主題信息。此方法等同於自然科學研究方法論中的“觀察法”。可見文學與科學也有吻合的地方。 Historical Reconstruction 歷史重建法 1. Narrative is employed to reconstruct the past, not to fabricate stories. 敘事法的使用旨在重建過去,而不是編造故事。 2. Statistical Analysis helps readers see the details to reinforce general themes, such as political and military strategies. When Nurgaqi negotiated with the Ming official for truce, he demanded three thousand taels of silver. His son, Hong Taiji, three hundred thousand. 數據分析以細節支撐宏觀主題研究,例如政治或軍事策略。努爾哈赤起兵之初,向明朝官員索要白銀三千兩。皇太極即位後,索要三十萬兩。 3. Comparative Studies help readers discern the differences between the Han Chinese and Manchu cultures. 比較分析法可以幫助研究者看清滿漢文化之差異。 4. Anthropological Studies concentrate on a Manchu family or community as a case study, which helps readers recognize magnificent changes in historical background. In this research, the anthropological method closely involves with Manchu language learning in order to conduct fieldwork, such as collecting Manchu stories, poems, songs, proverbs, other forms of oral tradition and oral history. 人類學個案分析法,擇取一個滿族家庭或社區爲研究對象,以小喻大,以查看時代之變遷。該方法牽涉到滿語學習,適用於田野調查,以便搜集滿語故事、詩詞、歌謠、俗語及各種口頭傳承和口述史。以此可見,滿語文學與人類學、語言學、歷史學等學科是密不可分的。 Part Five: What will we have? 前景展望 1. Establishing Manchu corpus: 滿語語料庫的建設 We commit to translation of the Manchu archives, including texts engraved in stone tablets and wood blocks. In order to enrich Manchu sources for linguistic, literature and historical studies, our research group will translate large amounts of Manchu archives into English and Chinese, especially the original Manchu archives that were produced before 1644. 本團隊致力於滿文檔案的翻譯,包括滿文石刻與木牌等。爲了充實滿語資料庫,支持滿語言文學及歷史的研究,本課題組尤其致力於《滿文原檔》的翻譯。該原檔形成於滿清入關前,尚未被譯成漢語或英語。 2. Interdisciplinary Studies: 跨學科研究  We will draw more attention to Manchu language learning for supporting interdisciplinary studies between linguistics, literature, history and anthropological research. 我們團隊倡導滿語學習,以支持跨學科研究,加強語言學、文學、歷史及人類學等諸多學科的互動。 3. The Application of sources: 資源應用 On the premise of Manchu language learning, we advocate applying Manchu documents directly into interdisciplinary research. 在學習滿語的基礎上,我們團隊倡導滿文資源在跨學科研究中的應用。 Bibliography 參考書目 White, Hayden, The Content of the Form, Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation, The John Hopkins University Press, 1978. White, Hayden, Tropics of Discourse, essays in cultural criticism, the John Hopkins University Press, 1985. Rüsen, Jörn, History, Narration-Interpretation-Orientation, Berghahn Books, 2005.  Von Ranke, Leopold, Geschichiten der romanischen und germanischen Voelker von 1494-1514, Saemtliche Werke vol.33, Leipzig, 1855. [法] 雅克•德里达著,《文学行动》,赵兴国等译,第一章,“访谈:称作文学的奇怪建制”,中国社会科学出版社,北京,1998年。 [瑞士] 費爾迪南•德•索緒爾,《普通語言學教程》,高名凱譯,商務印書館,北京,1999年。